HACHEURS : Cours et Exercices corrigés

HACHEURS : Cours et Exercices corrigés

HACHEURS : Cours et Exercices corrigés

Les hacheurs sont les convertisseurs statiques qui permettent le transfert de l’énergie électrique d’une source continue vers une autre source continue. (Ils sont l’équivalents des transformateurs en alternatif). Lorsque l’entrée et la sortie sont de natures dynamiques différentes, on peut les relier directement (on parle alors de hacheur à liaison directe). Lorsqu’elles sont de même nature dynamique, il faut faire appel à un élément de stockage momentané (on parle dans ce cas de hacheur à accumulation). Enfin dans le cas où l’isolation galvanique de la sortie avec l’entrée est une nécessité, on réalise des hacheurs dits « isolés ».

Suivant le degré de réversibilité que l’on désire, la structure du montage diffère.

Enfin, suivant la puissance nominale du système, la technologie des composants ne sera pas la même.

I- Familles de hacheurs

On distingue deux familles de convertisseurs continu / continu.

Les hacheurs à liaison continue (continuité électrique entre entrée et sortie), Charge rapide et contrôlée de batteries d’accumulateurs, et typiquement entraînement de moteurs à courant continu à vitesse variable,

– Les alimentations à découpage avec isolation galvanique.

Les alimentations à découpage se sont fortement développées pour remplacer les, alimentations linéaires de poids élevé et faible rendement. Elles sont utilisées désormais dans tous les appareils électroniques « grand public »

II- Différents types de hacheur

On distingue :

  •  Le hacheur série
  •  Le hacheur parallèle
  •  Les hacheurs 2 et 4 quadrants
  •  Les alimentations à découpage.
III- Quelques Applications

Le hacheur est principalement utilisé pour :

  • La variation de vitesse d’un moteur à courant continu
  • Le freinage par récupération
  • Alimentation d’appareil électronique grand public (PC, …)
VI- Hacheur série – Abaisseur de tension

Le schéma de principe du hacheur série est donné à la figure ci-dessous. On considère l’interrupteur I et la diode D parfaits. La charge est par exemple un moteur à courant continu.

Hacheurs séries - Abaisseur de tension

Le fonctionnement du convertisseur se déduit de l’analyse du comportement de l’interrupteur I.

  • à t=0, I est enclenché (passant) pendant un temps αT , alors : ud (t) = U
  • entre αT et T (αT< t < T ), I est ouvert.

On a alors : i=0 et le courant id circule à travers la diode D (diode de « roue libre »).

Donc : ud (t) = 0 tant que la diode D conduit, soit tant que le courant id (t) est non nul.

  • Lorsque id (t) s’annule, la diode D se bloque et : ud (t) = Ec

On distingue donc deux types de fonctionnement selon que le courant id (t) est interrompu ou non.

Fonctionnement à courant ininterrompu
Hacheurs séries-Fonctionnement à courant ininterrompu

La valeur moyenne de ud (t) vaut :

 Fonctionnement à courant ininterrompu

Remarque : la FEM Ec de la charge et la valeur moyenne Id0 du courant id (t) sont liés par :

Fonctionnement à courant ininterrompu -2
  • Si la charge est une batterie ( Ec est imposé par la charge), cette relation définit Id0
  • Si la charge est un moteur à courant continu, cette relation fixe Ec (et donc la vitesse du moteur car Ec= KΩ (Ω en rad/s)), sachant que Id0 dépend du moment du couple du moteur M (M= KI si l’on néglige les pertes mécaniques et les pertes par hystéréris et courants de Foucault).
Fonctionnement à courant dans la charge interrompu
Hacheurs séries-Fonctionnement à courant dans la charge interrompu

Lorsque l’interrupteur s’ouvre, à t = αT, le courant id(t) décroît. Si la constante de temps τ=Ic/Rc est suffisamment faible devant T, ce courant s’annule avant que l’interrupteur ne redevienne passant à t=T. En considérant que le courant id (t) est nul entre les instants βT et T, la valeur moyenne de ud (t) vaut alors :

Fonctionnement à courant dans la charge interrompu
Conclusion sur le hacheur série

Dans les deux types de fonctionnement, on voit que la valeur moyenne Ud0 de la tension disponible aux bornes de la charge est fonction du rapport cyclique α . On réglera la valeur de Ud0 en modifiant le rapport cyclique α :

1. soit en modifiant la durée de conduction de l’interrupteur I sans modifier la période T de commande (Modulation de Largeur d’Impulsion, MLI).

2. soit en modifiant la fréquence de commande ( f=1/T) sans modifier la durée de conduction de l’interrupteur.

La solution 1 est de loin la plus utilisée en pratique car elle permet un filtrage aisé de la tension ud(t) par un filtre passe-bas comme le décrit la figure ci-dessous. Ce filtre passe-bas permet d’éliminer les harmoniques élevés de ud(t).

Conclusion sur le hacheur série
V- Hacheur parallèle – Elévateur de tension

Le hacheur parallèle est aussi appelé hacheur survolteur. Ce montage permet de fournir une tension moyenne Ud0 à partir d’une source de tension continue U < Ud0 . Le montage étudié est donné à la figure ci-dessous :

Hacheur parallèle - Elévateur de tension

Les applications principales du hacheur parallèle sont les alimentations de puissance régulées et le freinage par récupération des moteurs à courant continu. On distingue 2 phases de fonctionnement :

  • Lorsque l’interrupteur I est fermé, la diode est polarisée en inverse (vD = -ud ); la charge est donc isolée de la source. La source fournit de l’énergie à l’inductance l.
  • Lorsque l’interrupteur I est ouvert, l’étage de sortie (C+ charge) reçoit de l’énergie de la source et de l’inductance l.

Pour l’analyse en régime permanent présentée ici, le condensateur de filtrage C a une valeur de capacité suffisamment élevée pour que l’on puisse considérer la tension disponible en sortie constante : ud (t) = Ud0

Enfin on distingue deux modes de fonctionnement selon que le courant dans l’inductance l (il (t) ) est interrompu ou non.

VI- Application des hacheurs série et parallèle :

Alimentation et freinage d’un moteur à courant continu à l’aide d’un hacheur réversible

Le montage étudié est décrit sur la figure ci-dessous :

Application des hacheurs série et parallèle

Le hacheur série est constitué de la diode D1 et de l’interrupteur I1. Le hacheur parallèle est constitué de la diode D2 et de l’interrupteur I2.

La machine fonctionne en moteur lorsqu’elle est alimentée par le hacheur série (D2 reste toujours bloquée car U > ud et I2 est maintenu ouvert).

La machine fonctionne en génératrice (phase de freinage) et alimente la source U (batterie par exemple) lorsque le hacheur parallèle est utilisé (D1 est toujours bloquée car lorsque I2 est fermé VD1 = 0 et lorsque I2 est ouvert D2 est passante et VD1 = -U ; I1 est maintenu ouvert).

Pour plus de détails télécharger les documents ci-dessous:


Liens de téléchargement des cours sur HACHEURS

Cours sur les HACHEURS N°1

Cours sur les HACHEURS N°2

Cours sur les HACHEURS N°3

Cours sur les HACHEURS N°4

Cours sur les HACHEURS N°5

Cours sur les HACHEURS N°6

Cours sur les HACHEURS N°7

Cours sur les HACHEURS N°8


Liens de téléchargement des exercices corrigés sur HACHEURS

Exercices corrigés sur les HACHEURS N°1

Exercices corrigés sur les HACHEURS N°2

Exercices corrigés sur les HACHEURS N°3

Exercices corrigés sur les HACHEURS N°4

Exercices corrigés sur les HACHEURS N°5


Voir aussi :


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