Thermodynamique 1 : Cours, Résumés, exercices et examens

 Thermodynamique 1 : Cours, Résumés, exercices et examens corrigés

Thermodynamique 1 : Cours, Résumés, exercices et examens corrigés

Le but de la thermodynamique est d’étudier les propriétés des systèmes et leurs évolutions en fonction des échanges d’énergie avec le milieu extérieur. Un système peut échanger de la masse et de l’énergie avec le milieu extérieur, alors son état change par gain ou perte de masse ou d’énergie. On dit que le système subit une transformation qui entraîne une variation des variables d’état.

C’est une science qui nait à la fin du 17ème siècle. L’essentiel à l’époque était de construire des machines indispensables à l’industrie naissante.

On rapporte que Denis PAPIN (Physicien français, 1647-1714) a eu l’idée de construire une machine utilisant de la vapeur d’eau en regardant l’eau bouillit dans un récipient. En voyant la vapeur soulevant le couvercle, il a constaté qu’elle pourrait donc aussi repousser un piston et ainsi fournir du travail.

La motivation initiale était donc de répondre à un besoin industriel essentiel à l’époque : trouver les conditions optimales pour transformer la chaleur en travail. On trouve dans cette phrase les trois mots fondateurs de la thermodynamique. Ce non (thermodynamique) vient du grec signifiant respectivement chaleur et force. On peut décrire la thermodynamique de deux manières ou selon deux aspects différents :

a. L’aspect macroscopique : on s’intéresse aux propriétés de la matière de la manière où le système à l’échelle globale ou macroscopique, alors les propriétés sont décrites par des variables d’état macroscopiques (P, V, T, m, …).

b. L’aspect microscopique : on s’intéresse aux propriétés de la matière à l’échelle microscopique ou atomique en utilisant comme variables les grandeurs cinétiques individuelles des molécules ou des atomes (Pi, Vi, Ei, …)

Selon que l’on considère l’un ou l’autre de ces deux aspects, on distingue alors entre la thermodynamique classique ou statique.

a. Thermodynamique classique

Elle explique le comportement de la matière ou des systèmes en fonction de leurs variations d’énergie et d’entropie. Elle décrit uniquement les états initiaux et finaux des systèmes en évolution et dresse le bilan énergétique du système. Le chemin suivi par la transformation du système peut jouer un rôle (la notion de réversibilité ou d’irréversibilité des transformations).

b. Thermodynamique statique

Elle cherche à expliquer l’origine et la signification des variables macroscopiques (P, T) et des notions de chaleurs, de travail et e l’entropie en les reliant directement au mécanisme de l’agitation moléculaire. Ainsi on distingue les notions de température, de pression et de chaleur.


Liens de téléchargement des cours de la Thermodynamique 1

Cours N°1 de la Thermodynamique 1

Cours N°2 de la Thermodynamique 1

Cours N°3 de la Thermodynamique 1

Cours N°4 de la Thermodynamique 1

Liens de téléchargement des résumés de la Thermodynamique 1

Résumé N°1 de la Thermodynamique 1

Résumé N°2 de la Thermodynamique 1

Résumé N°3 de la Thermodynamique 1

Résumé N°4 Thermodynamique-01


Lien de téléchargement des TD corrigés de la Thermodynamique 1

TD N°1 avec corrigé de la Thermodynamique-01

TD N°2 avec corrigé de la Thermodynamique-01

TD N°3 avec corrigé de la Thermodynamique-01

TD N°4 avec corrigé de la Thermodynamique-01

Lien de téléchargement des examens corrigés de la Thermodynamique 1

Examen N°1 avec corrigé de la Thermodynamique-01

Examen N°2 avec corrigé de la Thermodynamique-01

Examen N°3 avec corrigé de la Thermodynamique-01

Examen N°4 avec corrigé de la Thermodynamique-01


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